CATS- Lesson 3


Refers to idea and beliefs, significantly, systems of belief.

A coherent and recognisable set of beliefs.

The ideas concerned must be shared by a significant number of people.

The ideas must form some kind of coherent system.

The ideas must connect in some way to use power in society.

Ideology carries a negative or neutral meaning. Jorge Larrain (The Concept of Ideology).

The neutral meaning of ideology is associated with the “world view” of a particular social class and, therefore, typifies consciousness.

The negative meaning is associated with the observations regarding “false consciousness.” Karl Marx (1818-1883).

The false consciousness theory is extended theories surrounding the media- who are accused of being complicit in spreading messages on behalf of oppressors spreading this “false belief.”

Many theorists accept that human behaviour is determined wholly by class interests or class position. There are actually a host of factors beyond class that determine the way we see ourselves and the world, including gender, graphic location, ethnicity, age, income, religion, and so on.

There are four idols according to Francis Bacon, which are- Idols of the Tribe, Idols of the Cave, Idols of the Marketplace, and finally Idols of the Theatre.

They are shared understandings of what is “real” and what is not, and refers back to a common understanding of what things are. There is a process of re-presentation which means we are constantly representing points that others have previously made.

Ideology through discourse- an utterance of greater size than the sentence; the utterance of language generally; the utterance of a specialised form of language; as the spoken expression of ideologies, when it is used to achieve a form of power rather than get “the truth.”


According to O’Keefe, (Persuasion: Theory and Research) is “a successful intentional effort at influencing another’s mental state through communication in a circumstance in which the persuadee has some measure of freedom.”

Human beings have three personal attributes that can be influenced, these are: beliefs, values and attitudes.

Beliefs- an internal feeling that something is true, even though that belief may be unproven or irrational.

Values- a measure of the worth or importance a person attaches to something; our values are often reflected in the way we live our lives.

Attitudes- the way a person expresses or applies their beliefs and values, expressed through words and behaviour.


Jowlett and O’Donnell, (Propaganda and Persuasion) says propaganda differs from persuasion, “Propaganda is a form of communication that is different from persuasion because it attempts to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist. Persuasion is interactive and attempts to satisfy the needs of both the persuader and the persuadee.”

Propaganda is- “…the deliberate and systematic attempt to shape the perceptions, manipulate the cognitions, and direct the behaviour of the audience…” (Jowlett and O’Donnell)

The Ideology and Propaganda presentations covered the beliefs of the society and how propaganda can manipulate the audience with the intent to garner a response from them, like a persuader instead of an advertiser. Ideology brought light to the difference between personal views and those inflicted upon by the people around you and society’s views on a topic/situation; this can link into your views on LGBT people, racial equality, religious beliefs, personal and family values, and attitudes.